How to Invest in IPOs: A Beginner’s Guide

How to Invest in IPOs: A Beginner’s Guide

As a beginner in the world of investments, diving into Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) might feel a bit tricky. With the right knowledge and guidance, IPO investment can enrich your financial journey. This article aims to alleviate your fears and equip you with the necessary information to make informed decisions.

Understanding IPOs


An IPO, or Initial Public Offering, marks a significant milestone in a company’s growth. It’s the process by which a private company goes public by offering its shares to the public for the first time. This move provides the company with capital for various reasons like expansion and debt reduction and allows investors to participate in the company’s growth story.


  • Why Companies Go Public: Companies choose to go public for several reasons, including raising capital for expansion, paying off debt, or allowing company owners to monetise their IPO investment. It also increases the company’s visibility and credibility in the market.
  • The Process of Going Public: The process involves several steps, starting with hiring an investment bank, filing necessary documents with the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), and finally, pricing and allotment of shares.
  • Types of IPOs: There are mainly two types of IPOs – Fixed Price Offering and Book Building Offering. In the former, the IPO share price is determined beforehand. In contrast, the latter involves a price range, and investors bid within that range.

The Process of Investing in IPOs


Investing in IPO requires some prerequisites and an understanding of the application process.


  • Prerequisites: You need to have a Demat account, PAN card, and UPI ID. The Demat account holds your shares electronically, the PAN card is mandatory identification proof, and the UPI ID is required for payment.
  • IPO Application Process: Once an IPO is open for subscription, you can apply through your broker or online banking. You must provide details like UPI ID, bid quantity, and bid price.
  • Decoding the IPO Application Form: The form has terms like ‘ASBA’ (Applications Supported by Blocked Amount), ‘RII’ (Retail Individual Investor), and ‘NII’ (Non-Institutional Investor). Understanding these terminologies can help navigate the IPO application process smoothly.
  • Understanding the Allotment Process: The shares are allotted to the investors after the IPO closes. If the IPO is oversubscribed, allotment is done via a lottery system. The application money gets refunded if you do not receive an allotment.

Factors to Consider Before Investing in an IPO


Investing in an IPO should not be an impulsive decision. Several factors should be considered before diving into IPO investments.


  • Reading the Red Herring Prospectus: The prospectus is a company-issued document detailing its operations, financial health, and other critical details. It’s crucial to read this document before investing.
  • Analysing Company Fundamentals: Examine the company’s financial health, business model, and growth potential. Look at factors like the company’s profitability, debt levels, and operational efficiency.
  • Evaluating Promoters and Management: The credibility of the company’s management and promoters is crucial. Their track record, qualifications, and reputation can impact the company’s future performance.

Setting Realistic Expectations


It’s crucial to set realistic expectations while investing in an IPO. Understanding what you can expect can prevent disappointments and financial loss.


  • Not All IPOs Guarantee Immediate Listing Gains: While some IPOs may list at a premium to their issue price, not all do. The IPO share price on the listing may sometimes be lower than the issue price.
  • Long-term Wealth Creation: Instead of focusing on immediate listing gains, look at IPOs as a means for long-term wealth creation. Consider if the company has the potential to grow and deliver profits in the long run.

How to Avoid Common IPO Investment Mistakes


IPO investments can be a learning curve, and it’s possible to make mistakes. Knowing what these potential errors are can help avoid them.


  • Investing Based on Hype: It’s not uncommon for IPOs to generate significant buzz. However, investment decisions should not be driven by hype but by solid research and analysis.
  • Not Considering Market Conditions: Current market conditions can significantly impact the share price after listing. Overlooking market conditions can lead to unexpected outcomes.



Investing in IPOs can be an exciting and profitable step with the right understanding and preparedness. Your journey into IPO investment can open up new avenues for wealth creation and mark a significant milestone in your investment journey. Always remember to do thorough research, read the red herring prospectus, and consult with a financial advisor if needed. Making informed decisions is always the best strategy when it comes to investing.

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